of Miles Hochstein (Great Great Grandfather)
b. November 28, 1819 Sachs-Altenberg (Saxe-Altenburg, Sachsen-Altenburg),
d. June 27, 1884, Hannibal Missouri
sent by his father on business to Hamburg, he suddenly resolved to sail
for the New World, and fearing opposition simply wrote to his father
apprising him of his plans and stating that he would return in a year
from that time."
crossing the Missouri River bottom... he was miraculously converted
to the faith which he had despised... and was ever afterward an earnest
and zealous supporter of Christianity."
Soldier in Mexican-American War (1846-1847)
Minister, Methodist Episcopal Church (1850s?-1868?)
Secretary of the Land Department, Hannibal & St. Joseph. Railroad (1869-1884)
Deacon, Pilgrim Congregationalist Church of Hannibal Missouri (1880-1884)
Carl Hermann Schmidt (b. 1819 Germany, d. 1884 Hannibal, Missouri) (Note date error on photo above.)
Expedition" by John Taylor Hughes is the original historical
account of the 1846 Mexican War in which Carl Herman Schmidt,
age 27, was a humble foot soldier, and by means of which he
earned his American citizenship.
A picture of a typical soldier from the 1846 war in the American
west. This is the paperback cover of the original account of
the Mexican War, published by Texas A & M University Press.
It makes interesting reading. My great great grandpa, was but
a humble agent of American Western imperialism, a German immigrant
seeking citizenship, who soldiered together with the gentleman
of Christian Martin Schmidt and Wilhelmine
Henriette Friederice Bliedtner, presumably of Saxe-Altenberg,
Ruckdeschell Schmidt (b. 1830 (or circa 1832 based
on reported age of 19 at 1851 marriage), Breslau, Germany
(or Baireuth or Wunseedl, Bavaria), d. 13 November 1909,
St. Louis, Missouri)
on 21 Dec 1851, Jefferson, Cole Co., Missouri
1. Martin G. Schmidt (b. after 1851? d. by age 20, circa
1872-3) This is same person as Christian Martin Schmidt,
below. Children unlikely.
2. Dolph (aka
William Adolphus) Schmidt (b. 1854 - d. 1899), Miles
Hochsten's gg-gf. Would marry Ida Stobernack, sister
of the wife of his brother, below.
3. Edward Carl Schmidt (b. after 1854?), Ginger Nowling's
ggg-gf. Would marry Emma Elizabeth (aka Emma Lee or
Emily) Stobernack, sister of the wife of Dolph above.
4. Albert John Schmidt (b. bet. 1855 and 1866?),
married and living in Texas, in railroad business by
1895. Children possible.
5. Richard Schmidt (b. bet. 1856 and 1866?) Living
in 1895. Children possible. May have become physician?
6. Matilda Louise Schmidt (b. ca 1867) Later "Louise
M." Living in 1895, and would later marry and become
relatively wealthy according to Gianna Smith Hochstein.
7. Emma (or Emily Rosalie?) Schmidt (b. ca 1869)
Attending school in 1895. Would later marry Edwin Grant
Hutchings and publish several novels as Emily Grant
Hutchings. No children.
8. Carl Hermann Schmidt, Jr. (b. 1875 or 1876, d. circa 1880.) (Not mentioned
in 1895. Deceased by 1895 (prior to age 20) and thus
9. Henri Schmidt (b. 1878, possibly died circa 1879) One of three deceased children
by 1895. Highly likely had no children.
in bold to above may have descdendants, while those
not in bold are less likely to have descendants, and
were deceased by 1895.
for Carl Herman Schmidt's Life
in Sachsen-Altenberg Germany
1845 or 1846
Germany, survives ship fire off New Orleans, enlists
in American army in St. Louis
8 months in Santa Fe as US soldier in Mexican American
|A "Carl Schmidt", age 27, arrives Galveston Texas on the Barque Natchez in the "fourth quarter of 1847 (October, November, December?). His occuption is "Merchant", and place of origin "Saxony." The age, origin and occupation match our subject closely.
1847 onward, for several years
of St. Louis, Missouri
1847 and 1848?
small store in Independence, Missouri?
Writes Atheism manuscript?
Visits Cincinnati to deliver manuscript to publishers?
Abandons Atheism for Christianity?
Becomes ordained Minister?
Journeys back to Germany?
Returning from visit to Germany, serves as Minister
in shipboard wedding between French man (Heinrich Steininger)
and his future wife Margaret Ruckdeschell. She is 16.
30 or 31
congregation somewhere in the US (possibly Jefferson
City, based on marriage location in 1851) in which Margaret
Ruckdeschell Steininger and her husband Heinrich Steininger
Jefferson City, Cole Co., Missouri, he marries a congregant,
the newly widowed Margaret Ruckdeschel. She is 19, younger
than him by about 12 years.
1852 and 1853
son, Martin G. is born.
(aka William Adolphus) Schmidt is born in
St. Charles Missouri. Presumably C.H. Schmidt is a minister
in St. Charles.
son Edward born, probably in Red Bud Illinois, where
Carl H. Schmidt was a minister (see text of letter below.)
|5-4-1859 (May 4th?)
|Date Naturalized, as indicated on copy of certificate.
1855 to bef. 1866
son Albert is born in this 10 year period.
daughter Matilida Louise is born in Illinois
(by 1880 census report), suggesting that the family
still had not reached Hannibal Missouri.
|circa 1868 (after birth of Matilda Louise)
|Moves to Hannibal Missouri for "business purposes" (Source: Hagood, The Story of Hannibal, 1976)
daughter Emily (aka Emily Grant Hutchings in later life)
is born, in Missouri (by 1880 census report),
suggesting that the family may have moved to Hannibal
Missouri by 1869.
son Christian Martin dies at age 20.
son Carl Herman Schmidt, Jr. is born. Child does not
survive to 1895.
his eldest surviving son Dolph
(aka William Adolphus) Schmidt marry Ida
Stobernack, probably in Hannibal.
son Henri is born. Child does not survive to 1895.
H. Schmidt is reported by 1880 census to be employed
as a clerk for a railway in Hannibal
|Carl H. Schmidt is charter member and Deacon of Pilgrim Congregational Church in Hannibal Missouri. Some family members are also listed as charter members.
June 27, 1884
in Hannibal, Missouri.
does Carl H. Schmidt settle in Hannibal? Evidence suggests it was only in the post-war period, 1867
or 1868 at the earliest.
Sam Clemen's left Hannibal Missouri in 1853, it would appear
that Carl H. and family never dwelled in Hannibal at the same
time as the future Mark Twain.
he ever employed as a minister in Hannibal? I do not know. He was a Deacon in the Pilgrim Congregationalist Church from 1880 to his death in 1884, but one source suggests he came to Hannibal circa 1868 for business purposes, not as a minister.
Schmidt's Biography as Told by His Wife to a Local Historian
following text is the main text for his life story. It is interesting
enough, but some parts may need to be read with a skeptical
eye. Note also that the publication date is 10 years after Carl
H. Schmidt's death, because this is his wife Margeret C.'s recounting
of is life story.
Carl Hermann Schmidt (deceased) was Secretary of the Land Department of the H. & St. Jo. R.R., Hannibal, Mo., for fifteen years, filling the position with ability until his death, which occurred June 27 1884. His labors in whatever he undertook were almost invariably crowned with success, and when he was called to his final rest, his fellow-citizens realized that they had lost one whose place culd not be easily filled. Prior to 1869, when he became interested in the raliroad business, he was in the ministry and was stationed at Jefferson City, St. Charles and other Missouri cities and towns, afterward being transferred to the Illinois conference and placed in charge of a pulpit at Beardstown.
The birth of Carl H. Schmidt occurred November 28, 1819 in Saxe-Altenburg, Germany. His father, Christian Martin Schmidt, a native of the City of Altenburg, was born in 1776, died in 1860. He was a man of great wealth, and his financial ventures extended over a large portion of the German territory. He was a lineal descendant of George Schmidt, who was distinguished on account of having rescued the two sons of the Elector of Saxony from "The Abductor Conrad" of Hesse in 1443, for which act he was offered a title of
nobility; he declined the same but agreed to accept an estate
instead. This property (near Freiburg) was to be exempt from taxation and the estates which he owned at Altenburg are still in the possession of his posterity. At the time of our subject's birth he was the only lineal descendant of the famous George
Schmidt, bearing the family name, with one exception, namely:
Alfred Schmidt, a manufacturer of chemicals in Glasgow,
preliminary education of C.H.Schmidt was obtained in the
excellent schools of the Fatherland under the instruction
of a private tutor; one of his fellow students was Prince
Moritz, the young Count von Roedern. His knowledge
of languages embraced Hebrew, Greek, Latin, English, French,
Spanish, Italian and several German dialects. The latter
were taken for the purpose of success in commercial life
in Germany, for his father had determined his career in
advance; however the son imbibed a great desire for freedom
and saw much to admire in the institutions of America. Being
sent by his father on business to Hamburg, he suddenly resolved
to sail for the New World, and fearing opposition simply
wrote to his father apprising him of his plans and stating
that he would return in a year from that time."
this time he was an atheist and afterward wrote a book to
disprove the teachings of Christianity. On placing the manuscript
before some Cincinnati publishers, they carefully perused
the same, and declaring that it was the finest work on the
subject that had yet been written, agreed to him one thousand
dollars down and a royalty besides. He was not loath to
accept the offer, but while crossing the Missouri River
bottom with his manuscript in the saddle-bag he was miraculously
converted to the faith which he had despised, and on his
return to Independence, where he was then the owner of a
store, he burned the article on which he had spent so much
time and effort. Soon afterward he became a minister in
the Methodist Episcopal Church and was ever afterward an
earnest and zealous supporter of Christianity.
reached New Orleans at the end of a six weeks voyage, which
was not of the most pleasant description, for, besides encountering
storms, the ship narrowly escaped destruction by fire. He
had purchased immunity from military service in Germany,
but immediately on arriving at St. Louis, Mo., enlisted
in the United States Army, the special command of which
was sent to Santa Fe, N.M., and remained in the Southwest
for about eight months. Mr. Schmidt returned to St. Louis,
where he made his home for several years.
on a visit to Bresalu (Germany) Mr Schmidt made the acquaintance
of Margueretta Ruck de Schelle, of French extraction. Her
ancestors were expatriated during the Seven Years' War (from
1756 to 1763) and settled in Germany. Fraulein Ruck de Schelle
was married at sixteen to Heinrich Steininger and emigrated
to America. They were members of of young Minister Schmidt's
church in Jefferson City, but not for long, for the girl-wife
became a widow when only nineteen years of age, her husband
dying of the cholera. Two years later she became her pastor's
wife (December 21 1851) and she now [circa 1895] survives
husband having contemplated going as a missionary to Japan
in order to make herself more useful to him in his work
she took up the study of medicine at St. Charles, Mo., and
attended lectures in St. Louis. In those days the rights
of woman-kind were disregarded by medical colleges and she
was not allowed to take a degree. Although on account of
her husband's poor health she did not go to Japan, her services
were soon in great demand in the vicinity of her home and
she was recognized by all as a physician of ability. Her
field of labor widened and at last she had clientele not
exceeded by any other practitioner in Hannibal. She continued
in professional work until declining years led to her withdrawal
form active practice. To Mr. and Mrs. Schmidt were born
nine children, six of whom survive
and Biographical Record of Ralls, Pike and Marion Counties"
(886 pages) pub. C.C. Owen Co. Chicago, 1895, revised
and reprinted by Ralls Co. Book Co New London MO 1982,
out of print.
have found reference to a Prince Moritz (b. 1829 - d. 1907 (or
1909?) ) of Saxe-Altenberg. Presumably this is the Prince that
Carl Hermann claimed to have been schooled with. He would have
indeed been "young" compared to Carl Hermann - younger
by 10 years.
Genealogical Information From the Above "Portrait" Document
following texts appear immediately after the above text. Sons
and daughters are mentioned seperately.
Martin, died at 20.;"
A., who married Ida K. Stobernack, is a partner in the Empire
Mill of this city;"
C., a traveling salesman, married, Emma Stobernack;"
Albert (Schmidt), whose wife was formerly Ellen Bartram,
is a railway engineer in Texas;"
"Richard (Schmidt) is the youngest;"
and Biographical Record of Ralls, Pike and Marion Counties"
(886 pages) pub. C.C. Owen Co. Chicago, 1895, revised
and reprinted by Ralls Co. Book Co New London MO 1982,
out of print.
implication of the above statement is that Richard Schmidt was
the youngest son, not youngest child, I believe. Daughters are
enumerated separately. If this is the case it provides further
evidence in addition to the absence of their names from the 1880
census, that Henri Schmidt (b. 1878) was deceased by 1895, and
that Carl Hermann Schmidt, Jr. (b. 1876) was deceased by 1895,
since if those two were living they would have been younger than
Richard Schmidt. The two daughters Louise (b. 1867?) and Emily
(b. 1869) were younger than Richard Schmidt, but he was the youngest
son then living.
daughters are discussed separately, as follows.
M., the elder sister, took an elective course in the Missouri
State University, and is a teacher in the Hannibal Academy.;"
"Emily R. graduated in 1889 from the Hannibal High
School, afterward pursuing an optional course of study in
the Missouri State University. "
"Portrait and Biographical Record of Ralls, Pike
and Marion Counties" (886 pages) pub. C.C. Owen Co.
Chicago, 1895, revised and reprinted by Ralls Co. Book
Co New London MO 1982, out of print.
mother Gianna Hochstein reports that Louise M. would later marry
a relatively wealthy man and that she, Gianna, met her on many
occasions and liked her as a person
mother Gianna Hochstein reports that Emma (also known as Emily
Rosalie), would later marry and write books as Emily Grant Hutchings,
including such "classics" as Jap Heron, Indian Summer,
Where do We Go From Here and How to Study Pictures.
Jap Heron is (in)famous for having been channeled on a Ouija board
from the spirit of the deceased Mark Twain... and apparently published
in his name. It is said to be really really bad. I suspect that
Emily Grant Hutchings' spiritualism was sincerely believed.
following reference to Carl Hermann's role in his wife's first
marriage appeared among my Grandmother Bertha's letters in a letter
from Dorthy Preece.
to some information I found at home Carl Hermann Schmidt
witnessed the marriage of Margaret
Catherine Ruckdeschel (sic) to her first husband,
a young Frenchman, on the ship to America from Germany.
The Frenchman later died of cholera"
(Preece), September 22, 1955
described further below by his daughter Carl Herman Schmidt
"Came to America and gained his citizenship
by serving in the Mexican War."
This fact led me to do a little reading in the primary account of
that miserable little bit of imperialism on our continent John Taylor
Hughes' Doniphan's Expedition.
had purchased immunity from military service in Germany, but
immediately on arriving at St. Louis, Mo., enlisted in the
United States Army, the special command of which was sent
to Santa Fe, N.M., and remained in the Southwest for about
"Portrait and Biographical Record of Ralls, Pike and
Marion Counties" (886 pages) pub. C.C. Owen Co. Chicago,
1895, revised and reprinted by Ralls Co. Book Co New London
MO 1982, out of print.
outpost in Sante Fe at which he was stationed is mentioned in "Doniphan's
Expedition", but the "special command" alluded to,
is not mentioned in the book. It is unsurprising that he himself
is not mentioned since he was of low rank. In Doniphan's Expedition,
mention is made of one Captain David Waldo "whose thorough
acquaintance with the language and customs of the Mexicans as well
as accomplished general scholarship, not only qualified him for
the undertaking (of translating laws into Spanish) but rendered
him eminently useful on several subsequent occasions during the
our subject (Carl H. Schmidt) was in fact, as the text below claims,
well educated and familiar with Spanish, we may speculate that perhaps
he served under Captain David Waldo in Sante Fe as a translator,
and this legal and tranlsation work might even be the referent of
the "special command" in Sante Fe in which it is claimed
Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild - Barque Natchez
Germany to Galvestone, Texas
Fourth Qarter of 1847
District of Galveston - Port of Galveston
46, Schmidt, Carl, male, 28, Saxony, Merchant
The Role of Hannibal Ministers as Justifiers of Racial Oppression
What were the racial views of
Carl H. Schmidt?
While no documentary evidence from his life has been found, if
he was pre-Civil War minister in Hannibal Missouri we would necessarily be suspicious. However a
review of the birth locations of his children now suggests that
the family did not reach Hannibal until 1867 at the earliest,
and previously dwelled in Illinois, probably for the duration
of the Civil War.
the one hand we have the obvious fact of participation in the
imperialist war against Mexico in his youth. Yet, comparatively
speaking, this doesn't trouble me. He was an immigrant from Germany,
a young man of his time and place, and this war was no doubt an
expedient way for him to gain American citizenship. I'm not even
particularly troubled if he took part in it with naive enthusiasm
for conquest. That is what young men sometimes foolishly and stupidly
the other hand, on the question of slavery and race in Hannibal,
Missouri and the American south, I cannot be so casual. Historian
Terrell Dempsey (author of "Searching for Jim - Slavery in
Sam Clemens' World", 2003) describes the pre-Civil War slave
culture of Hannibal Missouri.
culture was markedly different from the culture that
exists in Northeast Missouri today. Slavery touched
every institution. It was key to the very matrix of
society. The religion, economics, politics, and social
structure were all based at least in part upon slavery.
The Protestant Churches of Hannibal were the bedrock
of slave culture. Without the moral authority of the
churches, slavery could not have existed.
Protestant churches of Hannibal all preached a theology
of slavery that gave divine sanction to the institution
and relieved guilt raised by abolitionists -- or doubts
from a nagging conscience. The churches also instructed
slaves in the moral requirement of obedience to masters.
Following the seizure of abolitionist material in Marion
County and the exiling of Presbyterian David Nelson in
1836 for anti-slavery activity, the Missouri legislature
passed a law that outlawed abolitionist speech and literature.
the major Protestant churches split nationally over the
abolition issue in the 1840s, Hannibal's churches toed
the line of slave theology. Some local congregations retained
ties to national affiliations that countenanced abolition,
but local congregations remained strongly pro-slavery
and only pro-slavery ministers were allowed. One such
Hannibal minister was the Reverend William Goff Caples
of the Missouri Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
W.G. Caples, my ancestor C.H. Schmidt was a minister affiliated
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. Unlike Caples, I have found no evidence that he was part of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Hannibal. He appears to have spent the Civil War in Illinois.
Elsewhere Dempsey explains
that Hannibal was a slave trading town in which the tyranny and
evils of slavery were fully manifested, and in which one fourth
of the population lived in bondage. The absolute brutality of
that place and time is impressive to confront and contemplate.
If you are interested in the real world in which Sam Clemens (aka
Mark Twain) grew up, and in which my ancestor may (or may not
have) lived and preached, I highly recommend Terrell Dempsey's Searching for Jim: Slavery in Sam Clemens's World (2003).
there was evidence that my great-great-grandfather had been part
of pre-Civil War Hannibal society, then we could reasonably hypothesize
that he was a racist and a justifier of the slavery system. That
would be the expected position of a minister of a Methodist
Episcopal church in Hannibal Missouri in that period whether affiliated
with the southern or northern branches.
But Dempsey notes that
there were abolitionists among the Northern Methodists, and discernible
differences between the two Methodist congregations of Hannibal.
There were nuances of opinion and affiliation. For example, Dempsey
also alludes to other Methodist preachers who were suspected of
abolitionist sentiments (p. 63, Terrell Dempsey, Searching
for Jim: Slavery in Sam Clemens's World, 2003). And it appears
that one Methodist church in Hannibal remained affiliated with
the northern church, even as it adopted the proslavery position.
Given the evidence that he did not reach Hannibal until 1868 at
the earliest however, his own likely positions are even less well
defined. The culture surely did not stop being a racist culture,
but since abolition was the law of the land, attitudes and permissible
views may have changed.
the mid-1840s, the Methodists split dramatically and publicly
over the issue of slavery. Nationally the church divided
into the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South. In the fall of 1845, the state
conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church met in Columbia,
Missouri, and elected to affiliate with the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South. However, not all Missouri congregations
followed the state organization into the new affiliation.
The slavery issue divided churches at the local level
as well, and disagreements played out on the pages of
the local press.
"The two Methodist churches of Hannibal dealt with
the schism in different fashions. Though they both were
staunchly proslavery, one congregation went into the southern
church. The other elected to retain their affiliation
with the old Methodist church and soon found itself the
subject of suspicion and gossip."
for Jim: Slavery in Sam Clemens's World, Terrell Dempsey,
upshot is that this "other" Methodist church in Hannibal
insisted all the more loudly on its anti-abolitionist views because
it retained its "suspicious" northern affiliation.
was no moderate position in northeast Missouri slave culture
after 1849: Only public support of slavery was acceptable.
To question slavery in any fashion was to brand oneself
as an outsider and an abolitionist. It was a dramatic
Dempsey, Searching for Jim: Slavery in Sam Clemens's World,
However Carl Herman Schmidt only came to Hannibal Missouri after the war, as evidenced
by the birth dates and locations of his daughters. So his life
and views must be inferred from the perspectives of the larger
Methodist Episcopal Church in both Missouri and, more significantly,
in Illinois where he apparently lived during the Civil War. From
that perspective there is certainly a reasonable possibility that
he held abolitionist views. But we have no evidence. If he came
to Hannibal Missouri in the post civil war era, I would speculate
that any abolitionist views that he might have held would surely
have to be muted, at the very least.
The Pilgrim Congregational Church of Hannibal Missouri in the 1880s
New information (February 2006) has come into my posession, suggesting that Carl H. Schmidt was not a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church or any other church in Hannibal. Rather, by 1880 he was associated instead with the Pilgrim Congregational Church of Hannibal and held the office of Deacon. His son, my great grandfather W. Adolphus Schmidt was the church clerk.
We also learn ("The Story of Hannibal, J. Hurley Hagood and Roberta (Roland) Hagood, 1976) that he came to Hannibal "in the 1860s" for business purposes, suggesting that he did not come to Hannibal as a Minister, and would not therefore have been required to conform to any lingering pro-slavery views of the late 1860s and 1870s in Hannibal. That makes sense insofar as he had a large and growing family, and perhaps found it difficult to support that family as a preacher, and is in a sense somewhat "exculpatory." The source for Hagood's statement is not the source document she cites (Portrait and Biographical Record of Ralls, Pike and Marion Counties) but apparently the article below.
The following brief excerpt from Volume III of Mirror of Hannibal by Thomas H. Bacon (1905, Roberta (Roland) Hagood and J. Hurley Hagood, eds) represents one of the few remaining fragments of the lives of Carl H. Schmidt, his son W. Adolphus Schmidt, his (presumed) daughter Mrs. Matilda Schmidt ("Mrs.", yet she curiously retained her maiden name), and his daughter-in-law, my great-grandmother, Mrs. W. A. Schmidt, aka Ida (Stobernack) Schmidt, a trustee of the church. It provides a nice picture of the church building for the church of which Carl H. Schmidt was a member, but it would appear that he did not live to see its dedication in 1891. Rather, he is listed as a founding member of the Pilgrim Church organized by a Rev. J.H. Harwood on September 15 1880, and died in 1884. Presumably his role as a Deacon in that church was from 1880 to his death in 1884.
By 1905 his daughter in law, Mrs. W.A.Schmidt aka Ida (Stobernack) Schmidt is listed as a Deaconess. We also find evidence for a role being played by a "Dr. R.S.Schmidt", as a Deacon of the church and by a "Dr. R. Schmidt" (same person?) as a chairman. If this is Richard S. Schmidt, his son, it is the first corroboration I've found for the idea that C.H. Schmidt's son Richard Schmidt was in fact a physician like his mother. (I had previously mentioned that as a possibility above.) Did Dr. Richard S. Schmidt also have children?
One thing I do learn from this text is that, contra my mother's recollection that her mother Bertha Schmidt was Methodist in upbringing, and only settled on Congregationalism as a "compromise" with her less religious husband G. Day Smith, it would appear that Congregationalism was the family religion as early as the 1880s on that side of the family. Bertha's father and mother were clearly active in this Congregationalist church, as was her grandfather C.H. Smith. Whatever Congregationalism meant to her, it would appear to be the church into which she was born (1883), and the church of her father, mother, uncle and grandfather. It was only earlier in his life that CH Schmidt had been a Methodist Episcopal minister.
From "The History of Marion County"
Congregational Church. — On the 29th day of November, 1859, when but one Congregational Church (that of Rev. Dr. Post, of St. Louis) existed in Missouri, a small band of New England and New York Congregationalists, with a few others, who held similar faith, met at a private residence in this city, and having adopted the articles of faith in that denomination, joined in a society known as the First Congregational Church of Hannibal. Their first house of worship was built in South Hannibal, an unpretending frame structure, capable of seating from three to four hundred persons. But so rapid was the growth of the church that in 1870 it was determined to build a more commodious building, centrally located. The site was selected on Lyon and Church streets, and the building erected and furnished at a cost of $70,000. This building was sold October 9, 1880, to the Catholics, as mentioned in the history of their church.
Pilgrim Congregational Church was organized September 19, 1880, with the following members: Mr. W. H. Loomis and wife, George A. Collins and wife, Carl Schmitt and wife, Jas. H. Wheeler and wife, S. D. Barnes and wife, John Davies and wife, W. H. Ide and wife, Mrs. C. D. Morchouse, and twenty-seven others. The present building is a chapel, built on the rear of perhaps the best church site in the city, near the corner of Fifth street and Broadway. It was built in the summer of 1881, and cost $3,000. The dedicatory services were conducted by Revs. Robert West and J. H. Harwood, October 16, 1881. The pastors for the last organization have been Revs. J. H.. Harwood, J. C. Plumb, and S. P. Dunlap, the present pastor. The present membership is 100, showing an increase of more than double since its organization. Connected with the church is a flourishing Sabbath-school of over 100 members. The church contemplates building a large and commodious house of worship, fronting on Broadway, at no very distant day.
Immigration to Missouri
movement of Carl Herman Schmidt and his wife to Missouri was part
of a large influx of German immigrants to the state of Missouri,
as described here: http://www-lib.iupui.edu/kade/deutschheim.html.
Carl H. Schmidt
arrived St. Louis in time to enlist in the 1846-1847 Mexican American
war (circa 1845 or 1846 presumably), but the 1850s are described
by Dempsey as a time in which German immigration created cracks
in the ideological front of Slavery in Missouri. This raises a
question in my mind, since C.H. Schmidt was part of this general
German immigration, did he adopt the proslavery positions associated with ministers in places like Hannibal? What would be the required viewpoint in Jeffereson City , where we do know that he was a minister prior to the war, without
a doubt? And did Schmidt's views reflect what Dempsey describes
as German immigrant unease with slavery?
"As the 1850s progressed, the solid front of Missouri
slavery began to crack. German immigrants fleeing the
failed revolutions in Europe began arriving in St. Louis.
they brought with them republican ideas. Tired of repression
and militarism, they were eager to breathe the air of
democracy. And while the native sons of slave culture
saw nothing hypocritical in whipping a slave on the Fourth
of July , the "peculiar institution" did not
sit well with these new citizens."
Dempsey, Searching for Jim: Slavery in Sam Clemens's World,
additional factor for speculation is the fervent Republicanism
of his son Dolph (aka
William Adolphus) Schmidt , attested to by his daughter, my grandmother, Bertha (Schmidt) Smith.
We can only ask, was his son Dolph's later post-war Republicanism
("he loved the Republican party") learned from his father,
or adopted in rebellion against his father?
of Carl H. Schmidt and Sam Clemens (Mark Twain) in Hannibal?
his [Sam Clemens's] youth [1840s to 1853], there were,
in addition to the two Presbyterian churches, two Methodist
churches, a Baptist church, a Christian (Disciples of
Christ) church, a Catholic church, an Episcopal church
and a carefully controlled African church."
Terrell Dempsey, Searching for Jim: Slavery in
Sam Clemens's World, 2003, p. 64-65
appears that Carl H. Schmidt did not reach, or dwell for any extended
period of time, in Hannibal before 1853 when Sam Clemens's left
at age 17. He arrived post 1867. Among my ancestors only John
Stobernack and Catherine
(Sando) Stobernack may have overlapped Sam Clemens in Hannibal.
Nonetheless C.H. Schmidt was undoubtedly a participant in the
religious institutions and culture that Twain delighted in skewering.
the 1880 census we learn that Carl "A" (should be "H")
Schmidt now 60 is employed as a Clerk for a railroad company, and
his wife Margaret C. (49) is Keeping House.
living at home with the family are Matilida (13), Emma (11), Carl
(4), and Henri (2).
five older children (1. Martin G. Schmidt 2.William
Adolphus Schmidt 3. Edward Carl Schmidt 4. Albert John Schmidt
5. Richard Schmidt ) presumably no longer lived at home.
TEXT Extract: 1880 United States Census
5 CONT Census Place: Hannibal, Marion, Missouri
5 CONT Source: FHL Film 1254702; National Archives Film T9-0702;
5 CONT Household:
5 CONT Rel Sex Marr Race Age Birthplace
5 CONT Carl A. SCHMIDT
5 CONT Self Male M <Married60 GER
5 CONT Occ: Clerk R. R. Co. Fa: GER Mo: GER
5 CONT Margaret C. SCHMIDT
5 CONT Wife Female M <Married49 GER
5 CONT Occ: Keeping House Fa: GER Mo: GER
5 CONT Matilda SCHMIDT
5 CONT Dau <DaugFemale S <Single13 IL
5 CONT Occ: At Home Fa: GER Mo: GER
5 CONT Emma SCHMIDT
5 CONT Dau <DaugFemale S <Single11 MO
5 CONT Occ: At Home Fa: GER Mo: GER
5 CONT Carl SCHMIDT
5 CONT Son Male S <Single4 MO
5 CONT Occ: At Home Fa: GER Mo: GER
5 CONT Henri SCHMIDT
5 CONT Son Male S <Single2 MO
5 CONT Fa: GER Mo: GER
0 @S01@ SOUR
The date of the family's move from Illinois to Missouri can be derived
as circa 1868, based on the birth places of the two daughters Matilida
(IL) and Emma (MO.)
Carl Herman's daughter Emma would in adulthood be known as Emily Grant Hutchings, and would author several books, and be involved in a legal dispute involving her claim to have channelled Mark Twain on the Ouija Board to write Jap Heron.
in the Railway Industry in Hannibal Missouri in the 1870s and 1880s.
the above 1880 census data we learn that Carl H. Schmidt, at the age
of 60 was a clerk for a railroad company. I do not at the moment recall
how I learned that he specifically worked in "land acquisitions",
but I didn't make it up. It was in a document I read. Because his
son Dolph (aka William Adolphus)
Schmidt was, as reported in the 1880 census, working for the "Hannibal
and St. Jo" railroad, and because this was a large railroad and
land speculation company in Hannibal Missouri, which itself was at
one point the third largest town in Missouri in early years, it is
not unlikely that Carl H. Schmidt was also working for the
Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad. I'm not aware of any other Hannibal
based railroads, although there may have been one or more.
is no evidence, pro or con, that he was employed as a minister in
the later part of his life, and we do have this evidence that he worked
as a railroad clerk in 1880.
have recently read that the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad was involved
in land sales to Easterners in the years after the Civil War, and
in promoting migration to Missouri. If Carl H. Schmidt was involved
in land acquisitions, and if it was the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad
for which he worked, this would situate him in a company that may
have been busy in various kinds of dealings involving land purchase
and sale, some more faudulent than others. Further research on the
Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad of Missouri in the 1870s and 1880s
I'd prefer to learn that he was an honest scoundrel in land speculation
and fraudulent sales to Easterners, than to learn that he was a man
preaching God's endorsement of slavery.
1880 he was four years away from his death (or 14?), and from his
wife's reference to his poor health which prevented him becoming a
missionary to Japan when he was much younger, we may speculate that
he was not in the best of health at age 60, in 1880.
Portrait and Biographical Record notes that
"Carl Hermann Schmidt (deceased) was Secretary of the Land Department of the H & St. Jo. R. R., Hannibal, Mo., for fifteen years, filling the position with ability until his death, which occurred June 27, 1884. His labors in whatever he undertook were almost invariably crowned with success and when he was called to his final rest, his fellow-citizens realized that they had lost one whose place could not be easily filled. Prior to 1869, when he became interested in the railroad business, he was in the ministry-----"
(page?) "Portrait and Biographical Record of Ralls, Pike and Marion Counties" (886 pages) pub. C.C. Owen Co. Chicago, 1895, revised and reprinted by Ralls Co. Book Co New London MO 1982, out of print.
Early Life in Saxe-Altenburg / Saxe-Aletenberg / Sachsen-Altenburg
Carl Hermann was about 7, in 1826, the duchy of
formed. Did that have any significance for him or his family?
father is claimed to have been a business man, and since Carl H. Schmidt
apparently was educated in several languages, and studied with a young
prince, and was able to purchase immunity from German military service
(how hard was that?), we may surmise that he came from a background
of some wealth ("middle class?"), the kind of wealth needed
in that time and place to do those things.
was an emancipation decree in Saxe-Altenberg in 29 April, 1831. Carl
Hermann would have been about 12 years old at that time. If his claims
of belonging to a merchant family of good position are to be believed,
how would that have affected his family?
posted a question on the German Kingdoms list and Herbert Mahler provided
this fine explanation of history, complete with a connection to C.H.
Schmidt's and my very own putative ancestor, Georg Schmidt, charburner,
who lived in mid-fifteenth century Sachsen-Altenberg, Germany.
Material on the kidnapping of the Saxon Princes of
Sächsischer Prinzenraub, as related by Herbert Mahler
those interested in Sachsen-Altenburg (Saxe-Altenburg or also
Altenburg was the capital of the Duchy of Sachsen-Altenburg
which was an independent state within the Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation, which was basically formed by Charlemagne
on the second Christmas Day 800 (December 26, 800, 1,202 years
ago and represented the re.establishment of the Roman Empire
in Christian form and the formation of a united Europe that
lasted in one form or another until 1806, when it was destroyed
by Napoleon in the aftermath of the French Revolution). The
Dukes of Sachsen-Altenburg are a branch of the House of Wettin
(the same family in the male line as the father of Queen Elizabeth
of the United Kingdom where since WW I it is translated as Windsor).
The house of Wettin split into two branches in the 15th century,
one under Ernst, the elder branch or Ernstine line, and the
second under Albrecht, the younger branch or Albertine line,
and has its origins in Count Dedi, who died in 957. The Ernstine
line until 1806 had most of its territories in what is now called
Thüringen or Thuringia and the Dukes of Altenburg are in
turn a branch of the Ernstine line. Through complicated inheritences
and negotiations Altenburg became a separate state in 1573 under
Duke Friedrich Wilhelm I, whose line died out under Friedrich
Wilhelm III in 1672, and reverted to other Ernstine branches
until it became independent again in 1826 under Duke Friedrich
of the Sachsen-Hildburghausen branch. The latter's great grandson,
Duke Ernst III abdicated in 1918, ending the independence of
By the way "Prince Moritz" probably refers to Duke
Ernst IIs father (1829-1907).
of the most important historical events in Altenburg was the
kidnapping from the castle in Altenburg of the two young Saxon
princes, Ernst and Albrecht (fourteen years and just less than
twelve years old respectively, the founders of the Ernstine
and Albertine lines described in Part I, and the sons of the
Saxon Elector Friedrich "Der Sanftmütige") in
the night of 7th to the 8th of July 1455 by Kunz von Kaufungen.
Kunz had served the Elector in the civil war from 1446 to 1451
and received certain estates in the Meissen area to manage during
the civil war. When the war was over he refused to return them
so that the Elector had to take them back by force. Since Kunz
couldn't reclaim them through the legal system, he conspired
with two knights, von Mosen and von Schõnfeldt, to kidnap
the two princes. The conspirators split up and through different
routes planned to meet at Kunz's castle of Eisenberg in the
Kingdom of Bohemia.
captive princes and their abductors headed south through the
Schõnburg territories (lands that were not part of the
Electorate of Saxony), spending some time in a cave in the forest
near the Castle of Stein. Then moving farther south near
the Bohemian border, Prince Albrecht, while resting in the forest,
had the opportunity to discover a charburner, Georg Schmidt,
who with the help of some others of Kunz's captives, delivered
him to the monastery of Grünhain. On hearing this news
the others freed Prince Ernst after being assured that they
would not be punished. On July 14, 1455 Kunz von Kaufungen was
beheaded in Freiberg in Saxony. Georg Schmidt, the charburner,
under the name of Triller is said to have received a gift of
a Freigut or estate near Zwickau in Saxony as a reward for his
assistance in freeing the princes.
are a number of books (in German) that cover the story in greater
thanks to Herbert Mahler for providing all of this information to
me and others.
so there, dear Reader, you have it, or a version of it. My great great
grandfather, Carl Hermann Shmidt, son of Christian Martin Schmidt,
claimed to be descended from a charburner named Georg Schmidt who
rendered brave service to the undoubtedly execrable and brutal nobles
of Sachsen Altenberg.
I don't see any reason for him to be particuarly proud here (he's
not claiming to be descended from nobility, but rather from a brave
charburner), perhaps there is some truth in his claim of connection.
Furthermore, he does name one other putatively real historical person,
a man named Schmidt living in Glasgow, and with sufficient time, that
chap could be run down too, establishing the veracity of the tale
in one of its elements. I have verified that Glasgow was the site
of a large chemical industry in this time period, consistent with
the reported occupation of the other living Schmidt in Glasgow.
the other hand, Carl H. Schmidt is social climbing when he, through
his wife, points out that Georg Schmidt "declined an offer of
nobility." Furthermore, since the story of Georg Schmidt the
brave charburner is apparently a well known story from the area, it
would be easy for any man named Schmidt from Saxe Altenberg, particularly
once removed to distant Missouri in the late 19th century to lightheartedly
lay claim to a connection that was a complete fantasy.
the end, like all genealogical truths its importance is minor, diluted
by half with each generation. But somehow it is amusing to think about
for a moment, nonetheless.
Locations of His Daughters and Locations of his Congregations
letter from "Mrs. Edwin Hutchings" is from the spiritualist
author "Emily Grant Hutchings" to her nephew Edward, the
son of Dolph's younger brother, who was evidently filling out government
forms to enlist in the US military in 1941.
2336 Tower Grove Avenue
St. Louis, MO
airmail special came this morning and I complied with your request
as fully as possible with the limited space allowed.
the government doesn't expect grand-parents to have long names.
Your father's name as you probably know was Edward Carl Rudolph
but he changed it at one time to Charles Edward and dropped
the third name. Finally settling on Edward Carl at your mother's
nearly as I can remember he was born at Red Bud, Illinois where
Papa (Carl Herman - MH) was a Methodist
mother's name was Emma Elizabeth Stobernack but she changed
it to Emme Lee when she went away to school. She was born in
grandfather was Carl Hermann Schmidt. He was born in Altenburg,
Sachs-Altenburg, Germany. Came to America and gained his citizenship
by serving in the Mexican War. Mamma's name was Margaret Ruck
de Schel and she was born either in Baireuth or Wunseedl, Bavaria.
She and Papa were married in Jefferson City in 1852. I
hope these facts will serve you.
I couldnt tell from the article if you knew that most of the Schmidts are buried in Riverside Cemetery in Hannibal. I have photos of the graves, including your ancestors. Richard Schmidt is buried in Mt Olivet. I believe Sam Clemens' family is buried there. Riverside is a beautiful wooded cemetery overlooking the river and Hannibal. The markers are identical for Wm Adolphus/Ida and Edward C/Emma and they are big. Also Carl H Schmidt, Jr was born in 1875 and died in 1880. There is a grave for Henri as well but I dont have a photo and I think he may have died in his first year. I have wondered if that was Katherine Ruckdeschel's father's name although my records indicate the father's name was Georg.. Martin G. Schmidt is there and died at the age of 20.
S. Schultz, March 2006
Thanks to Hannibal Missouri historian Mrs. Roberta Hagood for providing
some of the above information.